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Das Haber-Bosch-Verfahren ist ein großindustrielles chemisches Verfahren zur Synthese von Ammoniak. Es ist nach den deutschen Chemikern Fritz Haber und Carl Bosch benannt, die das Verfahren am Anfang des Jahrhunderts entwickelten. Seit mehr als 40 Jahren bieten wir unseren Kunden kompetente und individuelle Beratung beim Fahrzeugkauf von neuen und gebrauchten VW- und. Auf diesem Wege stellen wir uns gerne persönlich bei Ihnen vor. Zudem stehen wir Ihnen mit Rat und Tat zur Seite! Petra Haberbosch Geschäftsführerin Telefon. Das Haber-Bosch-Verfahren ist ein großindustrielles chemisches Verfahren zur Synthese von Ammoniak. Es ist nach den deutschen Chemikern Fritz Haber und. Haber-Bosch-Verfahren Das Haber-Bosch-Verfahren ist ein Verfahren zur synthetischen Herstellung von Ammoniak aus den Elementen Stickstoff und.
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Many consider the Haber-Bosch process to be responsible for the Earth's current population explosion as "approximately half of the protein in today's humans originated with nitrogen fixed through the Haber-Bosch process" Rae-Dupree, By the period of industrialization the human population had grown considerably, and as a result, there was a need to increase grain production and agriculture started in new areas like Russia, the Americas and Australia Morrison , In order to make crops more productive in these and other areas, farmers began to look for ways to add nitrogen to the soil, and the use of manure and later guano and fossil nitrate grew.
In the late 's and early 's, scientists, mainly chemists, began looking for ways to develop fertilizers by artificially fixing nitrogen the way legumes do in their roots.
On July 2, , Fritz Haber produced a continuous flow of liquid ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen gases that were fed into a hot, pressurized iron tube over an osmium metal catalyst Morrison, It was the first time anyone was able to develop ammonia in this manner.
Later, Carl Bosch, a metallurgist and engineer, worked to perfect this process of ammonia synthesis so that it could be used on a world-wide scale.
In , construction of a plant with a commercial production capacity began at Oppau, Germany. The plant was capable of producing a ton of liquid ammonia in five hours and by the plant was producing 20 tons of usable nitrogen per day Morrison, With the start of World War I , production of nitrogen for fertilizers at the plant stopped and manufacturing switched to that of explosives for trench warfare.
A second plant later opened in Saxony, Germany to support the war effort. At the end of the war both plants went back to producing fertilizers.
The process works today much like it originally did by using extremely high pressure to force a chemical reaction. It works by fixing nitrogen from the air with hydrogen from natural gas to produce ammonia diagram.
The process must use high pressure because nitrogen molecules are held together with strong triple bonds. The Haber-Bosch process uses a catalyst or container made of iron or ruthenium with an inside temperature of over F C and a pressure of around atmospheres to force nitrogen and hydrogen together Rae-Dupree, The elements then move out of the catalyst and into industrial reactors where the elements are eventually converted into fluid ammonia Rae-Dupree, The fluid ammonia is then used to create fertilizers.
Today, chemical fertilizers contribute to about half of the nitrogen put into global agriculture, and this number is higher in developed countries.
Some people consider the Haber process to be the most important invention of the past years! The primary reason the Haber process is important is because ammonia is used as a plant fertilizer, enabling farmers to grow enough crops to support an ever-increasing world population.
There are negative associations with the Haber process, too. Some argue the population explosion, for better or worse, would not have happened without the increased food available because of the fertilizer.
Also, the release of nitrogen compounds has had a negative environmental impact. Howarth, Gene E. Likens, Pamela A. Matson, David W. Schindler, William H.
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The Haber process ,  also called the Haber—Bosch process , is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
The process converts atmospheric nitrogen N 2 to ammonia NH 3 by a reaction with hydrogen H 2 using a metal catalyst under high temperatures and pressures:.
Before the development of the Haber process, ammonia had been difficult to produce on an industrial scale,    with early methods such as the Birkeland—Eyde process and Frank—Caro process all being highly inefficient.
Although the Haber process is mainly used to produce fertilizer today, during World War I it provided Germany with a source of ammonia for the production of explosives , compensating for the Allied Powers ' trade blockade on Chilean saltpeter.
Throughout the 19th century the demand for nitrates and ammonia for use as fertilizers and industrial feedstocks had been steadily increasing.
The main source was mining niter deposits. At the beginning of the 20th century it was being predicted that these reserves could not satisfy future demands,  and research into new potential sources of ammonia became more important.
Converting N 2 into ammonia posed a challenge for chemists globally. Haber, with his assistant Robert Le Rossignol , developed the high-pressure devices and catalysts needed to demonstrate the Haber process at laboratory scale.
The process was purchased by the German chemical company BASF , which assigned Carl Bosch the task of scaling up Haber's tabletop machine to industrial-level production.
Haber and Bosch were later awarded Nobel prizes , in and respectively, for their work in overcoming the chemical and engineering problems of large-scale, continuous-flow, high-pressure technology.
Ammonia was first manufactured using the Haber process on an industrial scale in in BASF's Oppau plant in Germany, reaching 20 tonnes per day the following year.
The Allies had access to large sodium nitrate deposits in Chile Chile saltpetre controlled by British companies. Germany had no such resources, so the Haber process proved essential to the German war effort.
The original Haber—Bosch reaction chambers used osmium as the catalyst, but it was available in extremely small quantities.
Haber noted uranium was almost as effective and easier to obtain than osmium. Under Bosch's direction in , the BASF researcher Alwin Mittasch discovered a much less expensive iron -based catalyst, which is still used today.
During the interwar years , alternative processes were developed, the most notably different being the Casale process and Claude process.
Georges Claude even proposed to have three or four converters with liquefaction steps in series, thereby omitting the need for a recycle.
A major contributor to the elucidation of this mechanism [ clarification needed ] was Gerhard Ertl. The steam reforming, shift conversion, carbon dioxide removal, and methanation steps each operate at pressures of about 2.
The major source of hydrogen is methane from natural gas. The conversion, steam reforming , is conducted with steam in a high-temperature and -pressure tube inside a reformer with a nickel catalyst, separating the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the natural gas.
Other fossil fuel sources include coal , heavy fuel oil and naphtha , while hydrogen is also produced from biomass and from electrolysis of water.
Nitrogen gas N 2 is very unreactive because the atoms are held together by strong triple bonds. The Haber process relies on catalysts that accelerate the scission of this triple bond.
Two opposing considerations are relevant to this synthesis: the position of the equilibrium and the rate of reaction. At room temperature, the equilibrium is strongly in favor of ammonia, but the reaction doesn't proceed at a detectable rate due to its high activation energy.
Above this temperature, the equilibrium quickly becomes quite unfavorable for the reaction product at atmospheric pressure, according to the van 't Hoff equation.
The reason for this is evident in the equilibrium relationship, which is. In addition, running compressors takes considerable energy, as work must be done on the very compressible gas.
While removing the product i. The hot gases are cooled enough, whilst maintaining a high pressure, for the ammonia to condense and be removed as liquid.
Unreacted hydrogen and nitrogen gases are then returned to the reaction vessel to undergo further reaction. In academic literature, more complete separation of ammonia has been proposed by absorption in metal halides and by adsorption on zeolites.
Such a process is called a absorbent-enhanced Haber process or adsorbent-enhanced Haber process. The Haber—Bosch process relies on catalysts to accelerate the hydrogenation of N 2.
The catalysts are " heterogeneous ", meaning that they are solid that interact on gaseous reagents. The catalyst typically consists of finely divided iron bound to an iron oxide carrier containing promoters possibly including aluminium oxide , potassium oxide , calcium oxide , and magnesium oxide.
In industrial practice, the iron catalyst is obtained from finely ground iron powder, which is usually obtained by reduction of high-purity magnetite Fe 3 O 4.
The pulverized iron metal is burnt oxidized to give magnetite or wüstite FeO, ferrous oxide of a defined particle size.
The magnetite or wüstite particles are then partially reduced, removing some of the oxygen in the process. The resulting catalyst particles consist of a core of magnetite, encased in a shell of wüstite , which in turn is surrounded by an outer shell of iron metal.
The catalyst maintains most of its bulk volume during the reduction, resulting in a highly porous high-surface-area material, which enhances its effectiveness as a catalyst.
Other minor components of the catalyst include calcium and aluminium oxides , which support the iron catalyst and help it maintain its surface area.
These oxides of Ca, Al, K, and Si are unreactive to reduction by the hydrogen. The production of the required magnetite catalyst requires a particular melting process in which the used raw materials must be free of catalyst poisons and the promoter aggregates must be evenly distributed in the magnetite melt.
Unfortunately, the rapid cooling ultimately forms a catalyst of reduced abrasion resistance. Despite this disadvantage, the method of rapid cooling is often preferred in practice.
The reduction of the magnetite proceeds via the formation of Wüstite FeO , so that particles with a core of magnetite surrounded by a shell of Wüstite are formed.
These form crystallites a bimodal pore system with pore diameters of about 10 nanometers produced by the reduction of the magnetite phase and of 25 to 50 nanometers produced by the reduction of the desertite phase.
During the reduction of the iron oxide with synthesis gas, water vapour is formed. This water vapor must be considered for high catalyst quality as contact with the finely divided iron would lead to premature aging of the catalyst through recrystallization , especially in conjunction with high temperatures.
For this reason, the reduction is carried out at high gas exchange, low pressure and low temperatures.
The exothermic nature of the ammonia formation ensures a gradual increase in temperature. The reduction of fresh, fully oxidized catalyst or precursor to full production capacity takes four to ten days.
After detailed kinetic, microscopic and X-ray spectroscopic investigations it was shown that Wüstite reacts first to metallic iron. This leads to a gradient of iron II ions, whereby these diffuse from the magnetite through the Wüstite to the particle surface and precipitate there as iron nuclei.
In industrial practice, pre-reduced, stabilised catalysts have gained a significant market share. They are delivered showing the fully developed pore structure, but have been oxidized again on the surface after manufacture and are therefore no longer pyrophoric.
The reactivation of such pre-reduced catalysts requires only 30 to 40 hours instead of the usual time periods of several days. In addition to the short start-up time, they also have other advantages such as higher water resistance and lower weight.
Since the industrial launch of the Haber—Bosch process, many efforts have been made to improve it.
Many metals were intensively tested in the search for suitable catalysts: The requirement for suitability is the dissociative adsorption of nitrogen i.
At the same time the binding of the nitrogen atoms must not be too strong, otherwise the catalyst would be blocked and the catalytic ability would be reduced i.
The elements in the periodic table at the left of the iron group show such a strong bond to nitrogen. The formation of surface nitrides makes for example chromium catalysts ineffective.
Metals to the right of the iron group, in contrast, adsorb nitrogen too weakly to be able to activate it sufficiently for ammonia synthesis.
Haber himself initially used catalysts based on osmium and uranium. Uranium, however, reacts to its nitride during catalysis and osmium oxide is rare.
Due to the comparatively low price, high availability, easy processing, lifespan and activity, iron was ultimately chosen as catalyst.
According to theoretical and practical studies, further improvements of the pure iron catalyst are limited. It was only in that the activity of iron catalysts were increased noticeably by inclusion of cobalt.
Ruthenium forms highly active catalysts. Allowing milder operating pressures and temperatures, Ru-based materials are referred to as second-generation catalysts.
Such catalysts are prepared by decomposition of triruthenium dodecacarbonyl on graphite. Their activity is strongly dependent on the catalyst carrier and the promoters.
A wide range of substances can be used as carriers, including carbon , magnesium oxide , aluminum oxide , zeolites , spinels , and boron nitride.
In addition, the finely dispersed carbon poses a risk of explosion. For these reasons and due to its low acidity , magnesium oxide has proven to be a good alternative.
Smil, Nature 29 , as it "detonated the population explosion," driving the world's population from 1. Haber's almost paradoxical biography affected more lives and deaths than anybody else's.
Bosch was a co-founder of IG-Farben, the world's largest chemical company. After WW II the allies broke it up into three smaller parts, each still larger than any foreign chemical company.
Compare the ongoing robot population explosion! Haber-Bosch process: Under high temperature and very high pressure, hydrogen and nitrogen from thin air are combined to produce ammonia.
In , it sustained roughly 2 out of 5 people Fryzuk, Nature , As of , it already sustains nearly 1 out of 2; soon it will sustain 2 out of 3.
Billions of people would never have existed without it; our dependence will only increase as the global count moves to ten billion people or so.
Haber was a professor in Karlsruhe when he demonstrated the feasibility of ammonia synthesis in Bosch, an engineer at BASF in Ludwigshafen, then overcame some unprecedented engineering problems associated with the enormous pressure required by the process.
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